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Kings and Queens of England - William I to Henry II (1066 to 1189)
By William Bortrick
WILLIAM I, Ihe Conqueror, King of England, born at Falaise, 1025; illegitimate son of Robert II, Duke of Normandy, succeeded as Duke of Normandy in 1035; King of England by conquest 14 October 1066, crowned in Westminster Abbey 25 December 1066. He married circa 1050, Matilda (died at Caen, 2 November 1083, buried at The Holy Trinity, Caen), daughter of Baudouin V, Count of Flanders, and had issue,
1. Robert III, Courthose, Duke of Normandy, born circa 1051, married Sybilla (died Lent 1103), daughter of Geoffrey, Count of Conversano, and died a prisoner in Cardiff Castle, 3 February 1134, leaving issue,
1. William III, Clito, Duke of Normandy, Count of Flanders 1127, born 1101, married 1stly, 1123 (marriage annulled 1124), Sybilla (died 1165), daughter of Fulk V and I, Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem. He married 2ndly, January 1127, Giovanna, daughter of Renier, Marquis of Montferrat, and died without issue in battle at Alost in Flanders, 27 July 1128.
2. Henry, born 1102; killed unmarried hunting in the New Forest.
2. Richard, Duke of Bernay in Normandy, born. ca. 1054; killed unmarried. hunting in the New Forest, 1081.
3. William II, afterwards King.
4. Henry I, afterwards King.
1. Cecilia, Abbess of The Holy Trinity at Cean (1112), born circa 1055; died unmarried 13 July 1127.
2. Adelaide, betrothed to Harold II, King of England, born circa 1056; died unmarried 1065.
3. Matilda, died unmarried.
4. Constance, born 1061, married 1068, as his 1st wife, Alain V Fergent, Count of Brittany, and died without issue 13 August 1090. He died 13 October 1119.
5. Adela, born circa 1062, married 1080, Stephen (sometimes called Henry), Count of Blois and of Chartres (killed at the Battle of Ascalon, 1102), and died a nun, 1137, having had issue, with five other sons and one daughter,
1. STEPHEN, Count of Mortain and Boulogne, afterwards King.
6. Agatha, died unmarried circa 1080.
WILLIAM I died at the Priory of St. Gervais near Rouen, 9 Sept 1087, (buried at the Abbey of St. Stephen at Caen). He was succeeded by his 3rd son,
WILLIAM II, Rufus, King of England, born. in Normandy, 1056, crowned 26 September 1087; died unmarried killed hunting in the New Forest, 2 August 1100 (buried at Winchester Cathedral), and was succeeded by
HENRY I, Beauclerc, King of England; Duke of Normandy by usurpation of his brother Duke Robert III, 1106; born at Selby, Yorks, 1070; crowned 6 August 1100. He married 1stly, at Westminster Abbey, 11 November 1110, Matilda
(Eadgith) (born at Dunfermline 1079; died at Westminster Palace 1 May 1118, buried at Westminster Abbey), daughter of Malcolm III, Canmore, King of Scots, by his wife Margaret, daughter of Edward the Exile, son of Edmund II, Ironside, King of England, and had issue,
1. William, Atheling IV, Duke of Normandy, born 1101, married 1119, Isabella
(died as Abbess of Fontevrault, 1154), daughter of Fulk V and I Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem, and died without issue in the lifetime of his father, drowned in the White Ship, 26 November 1119.
2. Richard, died unmarried, drowned in the White Ship, 26 November 1119.
1. MATILDA, afterwards Queen.
HENRY I married 2ndly at Windsor, 2 February 1121, Adela (who married 2ndly, 1138, William Albini, Earl of Arundel, and died 23 April, 1151), daughter of Godfrey VII and I, Duke of Lower Lorraine, Duke of Brabant, and died at Castle of Lihun, near Rouen, 1 December 1135 (buried at Reading Abbey), without further issue. He was succeeded by his daughter MATILDA, and his nephew STEPHEN, who competed for the crown. His
MATILDA, Queen of England, received the oath of fealty as heir presumptive following the deaths of her brothers. Proclaimed at Winchester, April 1141, though never crowned. In 1152, Matilda renounced her claim to England in favour of Stephen for his life with remainder to her son, Henry; born 1103, married 1stly, at Mayence, 7 January 1114, Henry V of Franconia, Holy Roman Emperor (died at Utrecht, 23 May 1125). She married 2ndly, at Le Mans, 22 May 1127, Geoffrey V, Plantagenet, Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy (died Sept 1150), and died at Rouen
(buried at Bec, 10 Sept 1167), having had issue by her 2nd husband,
1. HENRY, afterwards King.
2. Geoffrey VI, Count of Anjou and of Nantes, born 1 June 1134; died unmarried 27 July 1157.
3. William, Count of Poitou, born 21 July, 1136; died unmarried 30 January 1164.
4. Emma, married 1173, David (died 1204), 3rd son of Owen Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales, and left issue, one daughter.
STEPHEN, King of England; Count of Mortain and Boulogne, jure uxori succeeded. Took the oath of fealty to his cousin Matilda as heir presumptive of England and Normandy; usurped the crowns on the death of Henry I, his own elder brothers yet living; crowned 26 December 1135; lost Normandy, 1144; born at Blois, circa 1096, married circa 1123, Matilda, Countess of Mortain and Boulogne (died at Hedingham Castle, 3 May 1151, buried at Faversham Abbey), daughter of Eustace III, Count of Boulogne, by his wife Mary, daughter of Malcolm III, Canmore, King of Scots, and had issue,
1. Baudouin, born circa 1124; died circa December 1135.
2. Eustace IV, Count of Boulogne, 1135, born circa 1127, married February 1140, Constance (who married 2ndly, Raymond V, Count of Toulouse, and died 16 August 1176), daughter of Louis VI, King of France, and died without issue 10 August 1152.
3. William II, Count of Mortain and Boulogne, Earl of Warenne and Surrey jure uxoris, born circa 1137, married circa 1149, Isabel (who married 2ndly, 1163, Hameline Plantagenet, illegitimate son of Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou, and died 13 July 1199), daughter and heiress of William de Warenne, Earl of Warenne and Surrey, and was killed in battle at Toulouse, without issue, 11 October 1159.
1. Matilda, born 1134; died circa 1137.
2. Mary, Countess of Mortain and Boulogne, Abbess of Romsey until 1159, born circa 1136, married Matthew I, of Alsace, Court of Mortain and Boulogne, jure uxoris, who died of wounds at Driencourt, 25 July 1173. This married was annulled on grounds of her vows of chastity 1169; she returned as a nun to the Convent of St. Austrebert at Montreuil, and died 1182, leaving issue, two daughters.
STEPHEN died at Dover, 25 October 1154 (buried at Faversham Abbey). He was succeeded pursuant to the treaty with his cousin Matilda, by,
HENRY II, King of England, born at Le Mans, 1133, succeeded his mother's first cousin, Stephen, 25 October 1154. Crowned 19 December 1154, Count of Anjou and Maine, 1157, Duke of Normandy, 1150, Duke of Aquitaine, jure uxoris, 1152; married at Bordeaux, Whitsuntide, 1152, Eleanor (died at Fontevrault, 26 January 1202, buried there), divorced wife of Louis VII, of France, and daughter heiress of William, Count of Poitou, and had issue,
1. William, born 1152, died 1156.
2. Henry, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou, born 28 February 1155, Crowned King of England, 15 July 1170, married 1173, Margaret (who married 2ndly, 1186, Bela III, King of Hungary, and died 1198), daughter of Louis VII, King of France, and died without issue 11 June 1183.
3. RICHARD I, afterwards King.
4. Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany, born 23 Sept 1158, married July 1181, Constance (died 31 August 1201), daughter and heiress of Conan IV, Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond, and died 19 August 1186, leaving issue,
1. ARTHUR, Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond, born posthumously, 29 March 1187, on whom, on the death of his uncle,
2. RICHARD I, the right to the Crown devolved. He died unmarried , killed 3 April 1203.
1. Eleanor, born 1184; died unmarried 10 August 1241.
5. JOHN, afterwards King.
1. Maud, born 1156, married 1 February 1168, Henry V The Lion, Duke of Saxony, and died 8 June, 1189, leaving issue, four sons and one daughter He died 1 April, 1195.
2. Eleanor, born 13 October 1162, married Sept 1177, Alfonso VIII, King of Castile, and died 31 October 1214, leaving issue, four sons and eight daughters. He died 6 October 1214.
3. Joan, born October 1165, married 1stly, 13 February 1177, William II, King of Sicily, and had issue. He died 18 November 1189. She married 2ndly, October 1196, Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse, and died
a nun, 4 September 1199, having had further issue. He died August 1222.
HENRY II died at Chinon 6 July 1189, (buried at Fontevrault). He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son,
RICHARD I to EDWARD I (1189 to 1307)